Glossary

Acetaldehyde : It is an ingredient present in cigarettes that destroys skin fibres and results in skin losing its elasticity.

Acrylic : It has moisture barrier as well as waterproofing, water repelling properties. It is a substance derived from acrylic acid and often used for false nails, nail enhancements and nail extensions.

Alkaline : Any non-acid substance with a pH greater than 7. Water in its pure form has a pH of about 7 and is therefore neither alkaline nor acidic.

Allantoin : A botanical extract said to heal and soothe. Used in creams and topical preparations for the skin.

Alpha-hydroxy acids (AHAs) : They are naturally occurring acids that help loosen up dead surface cells and speed up the skin’s natural exfoliation process. AHAs are found in dairy products, sugar, and citrus fruits. Applied topically, AHAs help diminish the look of fine lines and unclog pores. Lactic acid and citric acid are examples of AHAs.

Aminophylline : It is an ingredient that stops production of the enzyme that leads to fat storage in our body.

Analgesic : It is a medicine that reduces sensitivity to pain.

Anaphrodisiac : They are substances or ingredients that diminish sexual desire.

Anti-allergic : They act to reduce sensitivity to various substances.

Anti-catarrhal : It relieves or reduces the production of mucus.

Anti-cellulite gels/creams : It contain ingredients that tone, firm and act on fat to help reduce the appearance of cellulite.

Anti-coagulant : It is a substance that stops blood from clotting

Anti-convulsive : It relieves or controls convulsions.

Anti-inflammatory : It reduces inflammation.

Anti-microbial : It resists or destroys pathogens(agents that cause disease).

Anti-neuralgic : It relieves and reduces nerve pain.

Anti-oxidants : These protect skin from damaging free radicals. Free radicals are unstable molecules caused by pollution, smoke, ultraviolet light and other environmental factors. These unstable molecules cause visible signs of aging like fine lines and wrinkles.

Anti-rheumatic : It relieves or reduces the symptoms of rheumatism.

Anti-seborrhoeic : It helps to control the sebum.

Anti-spasmodic : It relieves spasms and cramps of the smooth muscles.

Anti-sudorific : It diminishes sweating.

Anti-toxic : It counteracts poisoning.

Antibacterial : It is an agent that kills bacteria.

Antilactogenic : It prevents or slows down the secretion of milk in nursing mothers.

Antiparasitic : It prevents development of parasites.

Antipruritis : It relieves itching.

Antipyretic : It counteracts inflammation or fever

Antisclerotic : It helps in anti-ageing, prevents hardening of tissues

Antispasmodic : It prevents muscle spasm, convulsion.

Antitussive : It relieves coughing.

Aphrodisiac : It increases or stimulates sexual desire.

Aqua : It is a most common ingredient in products, it is simple water and a must for healthy skin.

Aromatherapy oils : They are either blended or used alone, a few drops of essential oil in a bath make it a relaxing and therapeutic experience.

Astringent : It contracts and tightens the tissues.

Azulene : An anti-inflammatory and soothing agent, derived from German chamomile

Bactericidal : It prevents the growth of bacteria or destroys it.

Balsamic : It is a fragrant substance that softens phlegm.

Benzoyl Peroxide : This is an ingredient commonly used in the over-the-counter spot and acne treatments because it gently peels surface skin and unclogs blocked follicles, which can cause spots.

Bergamot : It is a plant producing a citrus fruit. The bergamot oil taken from the peel of fruit is used to manufacture perfumes, creams, lotions, soaps and suntan oils. It is an antiseptic and bacterial growth-inhibitor known for its toning, antiseptic and deodorizing qualities.

Beta carotene : It is an orange coloured plant pigments, used in the manufacture of vitamin A and vitamin A is good for a healthy skin. The foods that contain Beta carotene are carrots, apricots, broccoli, grapefruit and Chinese cabbage.

Beta-glucan : It is a new ingredient derived from yeast, reported to enhance the skin natural defense mechanisms.

Beta-hydroxy Acids : These work in the same way as AHAs but are less irritating to the skin; the most common one used is salicylic acid, which also fights bacteria on the skin.

Bioflavonoid : Plant derivative with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Usually derived from citrus fruit rinds.

Biotin : It is often referred to as Vitamin H, helps in creating thicker and faster growing hair. It is found in eggs, fish, milk, nuts and pulses.

Botanicals : These are ingredients from a natural source.

Botox : Trade name for botulinum toxin. Used in tiny amounts, it can temporarily paralyze a muscle and reduce or eliminate wrinkles or frown lines without harm.

Burdock : A root extract with antibacterial properties. May also reduce inflammations such as rashes, redness, acne, eczema

Calendula : An emollient believed to have healing, soothing and antiseptic properties. Used to treat dry skin.

Calluses : They are hardened layers of skin that develop when your skin tries to protect against friction and pressure.

Camomile : It is a flower used in shampoos for blondes, it can lighten hair. It serves as an emollient and its anti-inflammatory properties make it an ingredient of skin cosmetics. It also treats stress.

Cardiotonic : It has a tonic effect on the heart. In other words it is a pharmacologic agent/substance that increase the efficiency of contractions of the heart muscle.

Carminative : It settles the digestion, eases grip and relieves flatulence.

Cephalic : It stimulates and clears the mind.

Ceramides : They prevent water loss and help encourage skin-cell renewal. They help as a first line of defence for dry, chapped, cracked skin

Cholagogue : It stimulates the flow of bile from the gall bladder into the intestines.

Choleretic : It stimulates the production of bile in the liver.

Cicatrizant : It heals and promotes scar tissue.

Coenzyme Q10 : It is a nutrient similar to vitamins found in every cell of our body. Acts as an antioxidant and helps in cell growth. Also helps in diminishing wrinkles. Found in sardines and soy oil also.

Collagen : It is a protein found naturally in the skin, is thought to be an effective water binding ingredient when applied topically.

Creatine : A protein derivative in muscle tissue. Sometimes found in body-building supplements.

Cytophylactic : It stimulates the growth of healthy new skin cells.

Decongestant : It relieves congestion in the skin, digestive, circulatory and respiratory systems.

Demulcent : It soothes, softens and alleviates irritation of the mucous membranes.

Deodorant : It is a substance applied to the body to prevent body odor caused by bacterial breakdown of perspiration in armpits, feet and other area of the body. Deodorants have 3 to 4% of aromatic compound.

Depilatory Creams : They use chemicals to dissolve the hair just under the skin’s surface.

Depurative : It is known for purifying or cleansing the blood.

Desquamation : It is shedding of outer most layer of the skin or in simple term it is called skin peeling.

Detoxification : It means removing toxic substances from human body.

DHA (dihydroxyacetone) : It is an ingredient that attaches to protein in skin, darkening it.

Diuretic : It increases the production and secretion of urine.

Eau de Parfum : The most concentrated fragrance, usually more costly than eau de toilette because of its concentration

Eau de Toilette : A less-concentrated fragrance

Elastin : It is highly elastic protein present in connective tissue which helps many tissues in the body to resume their shape after being stretched or contracted.

Emmena gogic/emmenagogue : It induces or regularises mensuration.

Emollients : It is found in many skin products like moisturizers. It reduces water loss retaining the moisture of the skin. It acts as a humectant and lubricant.

Essential Oils : They are derived from plants and as the name signifies it has the essence of the plant from which it is derived. They are mostly being used in aromatherapy. However some like lavender are also used in creams for soothing skin irritations.

Eucalyptus : It is plant from which oil is derived. The oil is benefiting for the skin and hair. It adds luster and improves the overall health of hair. The anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties of eucalyptus treats several skin woes. It prevents bacterial and viral infections.

Evening Primrose : Used as an astringent and helpful for reducing skin irritation. Also beneficial for dehydrated skin.

Expectorant : It helps to expel mucus from the respiratory system.

Febrifuge : It reduces temperature, antipyretic.

Firming : These use ingredients that tighten the skin while you wear them. They minimize fine lines and wrinkles. Good for maturing skins.

Fruit Acid : The same as glycolic acid (reduces build up of excess dead skin cells).They have been used to treat various dermatological conditions like acne, dry skin, photoaging, actinic keratosis. These also boost shine and condition by changing the hair’s pH balance. Other names used for fruit acids are alpha hydroxyl acids, lactic acids, glycolic acid, citric acid and tartaric acid.

Fruit Sugars : Fruit contains natural sugar called fructose, found in honey, wine fruits, sugarcane, berries etc. This is not bad for health as they do not affect the blood sugar as sucrose, or the table sugar does. Fruits that taste more sweet have more natural sugar while tart fruits like avocado and lemons. Fructose is directly digested by the intestine. These hydrate the hair by drawing water from the air.

Gingko Biloba : It is an ingredient that helps in firming the skin.

Glycolics : Also known as glycolic acid. They are part of the alpha hydroxy acid family and are derived from fruits like sugar cane, papaya and pineapple, is used in several skin care products for its numerous benefits. They boost collagen, even the skin tone and keep signs of ageing at bay.They help speed up the process through which skin looses its outermost layer of dead cells to reveal a layer of new smooth skin cells

Growth Factors : They control the cell growth in different parts of the body and are used in anti-aging creams to help build collagen and soften fine lines and wrinkles

Haemostatic : It helps to stop bleeding.

Hepatic : It is liver tonic that stimulates and aids liver function.

Humectants : These ingredients are often found in moisturizers, as they work by attracting moisture to themselves and so keep the surface layers of your skin well hydrated

Hyaluronic Acid : It is a sugar molecule, an ingredient in many moisturisers because it helps skin retain moisture and gives the skin smoother look

Hydroquinone : It is an antioxidant that helps suppress the enzymes in the skin that are responsible for producing pigment.

Hyper-pigmentation : It is darkening of the skin, commonly produced by ultraviolet radiation, which provokes melanocytes in the skin

Hypertensor : It increases blood pressure in hypertensive person.

Hypo-allergenic : These products are usually fragrance-free and contain the minimum of colourizing agents and no known irritants or sensitizers. There is no gaurantee that no one will have an allergic reaction to them. Some people are even allergic to water

Immuno-stimulant : It stimulates the function of the immune system.

Inactive Ingredients : These could be preservatives, colours, fragrance, or flavours used in the making of the product and which do not necessarily contribute to the function/effect that the product claims.

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Karite : A natural emollient that protects and nourishes skin.

Keratin : A strong protein forming a major component in skin, hair and nails. It is made up of amino acids which determine its flexibility and hardness or softness.

Kinetin : It is an ingredient that promotes cell division and shows strong anti-ageing effects on human skin. It is used in innumerable cosmetics and skin care products.

Lactic acid : It is a chemical compound used in cosmetics and skincare products to adjust the acidity and also because of its disinfectant properties.

Lactogen : It promotes secretion of milk.

Lanolin : It is an emollient that reinforces the protective barrier on the skin avoiding moisture loss.

Lanolin-free : This means a product doesn’t contain the ingredient lanolin – the fat stripped from sheep’s wool.

Laxative : It loosens the bowel content.

Lipolytic : It breaks down fats.

Liposomes : These are used as vehicles to deliver the nutrients, drugs or cosmetics to the skin.

Loofah : It is used to remove dead skin cells and help boost circulation, loofahs can be harsh on sensitive skin but are great on very dry patches or for overall exfoliation on other skin types. Just make sure you dry them between uses- they can carry bacteria otherwise.

Mattifyers : They are basically for soaking up oil from skin. Witch hazel and cornstarch are two commonly known mattifyers.

Melanin : It is the pigment that gives skin, hair and eyes of human their colour. More melanin means darker skin tone and less melanin means lighter skin tone.

Menthol : It helps in dilate blood vessels, increasing circulation in the area.

Microbeads : They polyethylene microspheres mostly used in cosmetics and skincare products.

Mucolytic : It breaks down mucus.

Nervine : It is a nerve tonic that stimulates and strengthens the nervous system.

Neurotonic : It stimulates and tones the nervous system.

Non-Comedogenics : These ingredients are known for not blocking the pores and thus preventing pimples. They remove oil from the skin but don’t strip off the moisture.

Oestrogenic : It stimulates the action of the female hormone, oestrogen.

Panthenol (B5) : It penetrates the hair shaft, causing it to swell and thicken.

Parabens : They are preservatives in cosmetics.

Patchouli : It is a specie of plant that has aromatic leaves and used in perfumes for its strong scent.

Peroxide : It is a compound having bleaching effect on organic substances thus used in hair colourants.

pH Balanced : It is the term used to tell which liquid is acidic or alkaline to what extent. A pH number measures from 0-14 how acidic or alkaline a liquid is. Anything above 7 is alkaline and anything below 7 is acid. Water has a pH level of 7.

Phlebotonic : It improves or stimulates lymph circulation; lymph tonic.

Phosphodiesterase inhibitors : They form the most common ingredient of cellulite creams because they stop production of the enzyme that leads to fat storage in the body.

Phototoxic : It causes skin discoloration by exposure to sunlight, together with certain essential oils.

Prophylactic : It prevents disease.

Protein : It is what strengthens the hair giving it a nice coat and creating thickness.

Psychoactive/psychotropic : It has a hallucinogenic, druglike effect, capable of affecting mental activity and perception.

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Retin A : It is a form of Vitamin A that is used in several skincare products due to its ability of skin renewal. It also treats acne.

Retinols : It is another form of Vitamin A and an effective antioxidant. It poses a barrier against sun damage.

Retinova : It was developed by combining active ingredients of Retin A and moisturisers for not so young people having drier skin. It treats skin that has been damaged due to overexposure to sun.

Rubefacient : It increases local blood circulation, causing skin redness.

Salicylic acid : It is a type of alpha-hydroxy acid which are used in skincare products and cosmetics as it is less irritating to the skin and at the same time fights bacteria on the skin.

Sander : It is the little electrical tool used to get rid of very dry or hard skin on the feet.

Sclerotherapy : It is treatment that involves injecting salt solution into the vein making them swell and seal. It is treatment for spider veins.

Sea Salts : These salts have relaxing and rehydrating properties. The ones from Dead sea help balance the body.

Seborrhoeic dermatitis : It is a condition when scalp is greasy and this needs to be treated with cortisone creams.

Sebum : It is an oily or wax kind substance secreted by sebaceous glands of the skin that helps in preventing skin and hair from drying.

Serums : They give nutrient boost to the skin when talking about skin serums and serums for hair help seal the split ends and also keeps the moisture intact in the hair.

Sitz Baths : It is a bath wherein the upper body and lower body are exposed to different temperatures. It is used to energize the body.

Sorbitol : It is a type of humectant that attracts moisture to the skin. These are used in skincare products.

Splenic : It is a tonic of the spleen.

Stimulant : It stimulates the physiological functions of the body.

Stomachic : It stimulates secretory activity in the stomach.

Styptic : It arrests haemorrahage by means of astringent quality; haemostatic.

Sudorific : It increases or induces perspiration.

Sugaring : It is a process similar to waxing just uses sugaring solution (made from sugar or honey and lemon) instead of wax.

Sun Protection Factors : These are measures that will tell how well the sunscreen will protect the skin from sun damage caused by UV rays. The higher the SPF the higher protection from sunburn.

Sunblock : It is a lotion that blocks UV rays, mostly physical blocks.

Synergy : It is the process of working together that occurs when two or more substances used together give a more effective result than the same substances used alone.

Theophylline : It is an ingredient stopping production of the enzyme that leads to fat storage in our body.

Titanium oxide : It is a sunscreen to protect skin from harmful effects of sun and are less likely to cause allergic reactions.

TPI : It stands for tan protection index. In short it is the time you are in sun and will not get tanned.

Treatment Foundation : These normally contain salicylic acid to help counteract spots while you are wearing them.

Ultraviolet rays : These rays from the sun that can harm human skin.

Utertonic : It is the agent that improves the tone of the uterus.

Valerian : It is a type of herb or supplement that is used to assist people to fall asleep faster and for longer.

Varicose Veins : It is a condition in which the vein walls and valves weaken and blood flows down the veins rather than up.

Vasoconstrictor/vasoconstrictive : It constricts and contracts the capillary walls.

Vasodilator : It causes blood vessels to increase in lumen (the hollow inside of the blood vessel)

Verrucas : They are warts on the sole of the feet at times painful are called verrucas.

Vitamins : These don’t penetrate the hair except for B5; instead they coat it, making it look thicker.

Vulnerary : It speeds up the healing process of wounds and prevents tissue degeneration.

Witch Hazel : It is an astringent produced from the plants. It can be applied directly to skin for minor burns, itching, pain, swelling, bruises, insect bites and other skin irritations.

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Zinc Pyrithione : It is the most common treatment for dandruff, it shows cell regeneration on the scalp.

 

 

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